Complete Fiqh of Menstruation: Imam Birgivi (d. 981 AH/1573 CE)

Imam al-Birgivi’s Manual Interpreted is the explanative translation of a major Islamic legal work on menstruation, lochia, and related issues. Answering hundreds of questions needed by the Muslim woman practicing her din, this book provides accurate information and practical arrangement of charts and texts making it an important reference for every Muslim family.

It is based on Dhukhr al-Muta’ahhilin [Treasure for Those with Families] by Imam Muhammad al-Birgivi (d. 981/1573). The primary text, Dhukhr al-Muta’ahhilin [Treasure for Those with Families] by Imam Muhammad al-Birgivi (d. 981/1573), is the most  authoritative work on menstruation in the Hanafi school, which the majority of Muslims follow. The work has been commentated upon by a number of traditional scholars, the best known of whom is Imam Ibn ‘Abidin, the central scholar of the late Hanafi school.

The text and its commentaries have been studied by Hedaya Hartford and Ashraf Muneeb under various sheikhs from Syria and Turkey, among them Sheikh Muhammad Amin Siraj of Turkey, a traditional Hanafi scholar who has an unbroken chain to Imam al-Birgivi himself. Sheikh Siraj gave Hartford and Muneeb his authorization to teach this volume in a written ijaza that attests, in his words, to their “full comprehension and meticulous understanding” of the work.


Authorization 8
Introduction 11
Authors' Preface 15
Part 1: The Primary Text
1. Sacred Law Rulings 21
During Menstruation or Lochia 21
Prayer 21
Fasting 22
Reading the Qur'an 23
Touching the Qur'an 24
Entering a Mosque 25
Circumambulating the Ka'aba 25
Intimate Contact 26
Ritual Purity 26
Specific to Menstruation 26
Puberty 26
Sunna or Bida' Divorce 27
Postmarital Waiting Period ('Idda) 27
Atonement (Kaffara) 28
Rulings for the State of Major Ritual Impurity (Janaba) 28
Rulings for the State of Minor Ritual Impurity (Hadath) 29
Supplementary Rulings 29
Trimming the Nails 29
Removing Bodily Hair 30
Divorce 30
Waiting Period after Divorce 30
Waiting Period after Death of Husband 31
2. Terminology 32
3. The Basics 35
Valid Blood 35
Invalid Blood 36
Tuhr 37
Habit 38
The Forgotten Habit 40
The Beginner 40
A Woman with a Habit 41
Colors of Blood 43
Normal Vaginal Discharge 43
4. Onset of Valid Bleeding 45
Onset of Menstruation 45
Onset of Lochia 45
Multiple Births 46
Caesarian Birth 46
Miscarriage 46
5. The Kursuf 48
Rulings for the Kursuf 48
Exiting of Blood 49
Blocking the Blood 49
6. End of Valid Bleeding 50
Ascertaining the End 50
At the Maximum 51
Before the Maximum 51
Before the Habit 54
After the Habit 55
Time of the Purificatory Bath (Ghusl) 55
Menopause 56
7. Change in Habit 57
Blood Exceeding the Maximum 57
Blood Not Exceeding the Maximum 59
Change of Lochial Habit 60
8. Constant Bleeding 61
A Woman with a Habit 61
The Beginner 61
Valid Blood and Valid Tuhr 62
Invalid Blood and Invalid Tuhr 62
Valid Blood and Invalid Tuhr 63
Puberty through Pregnancy 64
9. Chronic Annulment of Ablution 66
Excused Status 67
Losing the Excused Status 67
Short of the Excused Status 68
Active and Non-Active Excuse 69
Ablution Before the Prayer Time 70
Forestalling the Excuse 71
Wiping Footgear (Khuffayn) 71
The Prayer 71
Cleaning the Filth 72
Part 2: The Commentary in Detail
10. Comprehensive Precepts 77
General Precepts 77
Lochial Precepts 78
Menstrual Precepts 79
11. Commentary on the Comprehensive Precepts 81
General Precepts 81
Lochial Precepts 86
Menstrual Precepts 91
12. Lochial Case Studies 101
13. Menstrual Case Studies 120
14. End of Valid Bleeding Summary 171
Before the Habit 171
At or After the Habit 172
At the Maximum 173
15. Abnormal Vaginal Discharge 174
Types of Abnormal Vaginal Discharge 174
Causes of Abnormal Vaginal Discharge 176
Preventing Vaginitis and Vulvitis 177
Toxic Shock Syndrome 178
Chart: Common Types of Vaginitis 179
Appendix 1: The Arabic Text 181
Appendix 2: Sample Record Charts 196
Yearly Menstrual-Lochial Calender 197
Works Cited 205
Imam Birgivi 206


Praise for Birgivi’s Manual Interpreted

A handbook of what a Muslim woman needs to know about her monthly period and related questions. The detailed content of this major work should make it useful for anyone teaching women’s fiqh.” – Nuh Keller

The most comprehensive treatise found on the subject in the Hanafi School. A must read for every genuine student. The method of explanation is uique, and the charts are unparalleled.” – Tahir Anwar, South Bay Islamic Association

This ground-breaking book in English is based on the Ottoman scholar Imam Birgivi’s Treatise Dhukhr al-Muta’ahhilin wa al-Nisa’ fi ta’rif al-Athar wa al-Dima’ along with Imam Ibn ‘Abidin’s commentary of it. According to Imam Ibn ‘Abidin, this treatise by Imam Birgivi is the principal reference for menstruation and lochia and their related rulings in the Hanafi school. Ustadha Hedaya has permission to teach Imam Birgivi’s treatise from Shaykh Muhammad Amin Siraj, a shaykh at the Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih mosque in Istanbul, who wrote that she demonstrated “full comprehension and meticulous understanding” of the text.
While directly affecting women, it is also important for men to study this topic as well


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