Complete Fiqh of Menstruation: Imam Birgivi (d. 981 AH/1573 CE)
05 Mar, 2014
Imam al-Birgivi’s Manual Interpreted is the explanative translation of a major Islamic legal work on menstruation, lochia, and related issues. Answering hundreds of questions needed by the Muslim woman practicing her din, this book provides accurate information and practical arrangement of charts and texts making it an important reference for every Muslim family.
It is based on Dhukhr al-Muta’ahhilin [Treasure for Those with Families] by Imam Muhammad al-Birgivi (d. 981/1573). The primary text, Dhukhr al-Muta’ahhilin [Treasure for Those with Families] by Imam Muhammad al-Birgivi (d. 981/1573), is the most authoritative work on menstruation in the Hanafi school, which the majority of Muslims follow. The work has been commentated upon by a number of traditional scholars, the best known of whom is Imam Ibn ‘Abidin, the central scholar of the late Hanafi school.
The text and its commentaries have been studied by Hedaya Hartford and Ashraf Muneeb under various sheikhs from Syria and Turkey, among them Sheikh Muhammad Amin Siraj of Turkey, a traditional Hanafi scholar who has an unbroken chain to Imam al-Birgivi himself. Sheikh Siraj gave Hartford and Muneeb his authorization to teach this volume in a written ijaza that attests, in his words, to their “full comprehension and meticulous understanding” of the work.
Contents Authorization 8 Introduction 11 Authors' Preface 15 Part 1: The Primary Text 1. Sacred Law Rulings 21 During Menstruation or Lochia 21 Prayer 21 Fasting 22 Reading the Qur'an 23 Touching the Qur'an 24 Entering a Mosque 25 Circumambulating the Ka'aba 25 Intimate Contact 26 Ritual Purity 26 Specific to Menstruation 26 Puberty 26 Sunna or Bida' Divorce 27 Postmarital Waiting Period ('Idda) 27 Atonement (Kaffara) 28 Rulings for the State of Major Ritual Impurity (Janaba) 28 Rulings for the State of Minor Ritual Impurity (Hadath) 29 Supplementary Rulings 29 Trimming the Nails 29 Removing Bodily Hair 30 Divorce 30 Waiting Period after Divorce 30 Waiting Period after Death of Husband 31 2. Terminology 32 3. The Basics 35 Valid Blood 35 Invalid Blood 36 Tuhr 37 Habit 38 The Forgotten Habit 40 The Beginner 40 A Woman with a Habit 41 Colors of Blood 43 Normal Vaginal Discharge 43 4. Onset of Valid Bleeding 45 Onset of Menstruation 45 Onset of Lochia 45 Multiple Births 46 Caesarian Birth 46 Miscarriage 46 5. The Kursuf 48 Rulings for the Kursuf 48 Exiting of Blood 49 Blocking the Blood 49 6. End of Valid Bleeding 50 Ascertaining the End 50 At the Maximum 51 Before the Maximum 51 Before the Habit 54 After the Habit 55 Time of the Purificatory Bath (Ghusl) 55 Menopause 56 7. Change in Habit 57 Blood Exceeding the Maximum 57 Blood Not Exceeding the Maximum 59 Change of Lochial Habit 60 8. Constant Bleeding 61 A Woman with a Habit 61 The Beginner 61 Valid Blood and Valid Tuhr 62 Invalid Blood and Invalid Tuhr 62 Valid Blood and Invalid Tuhr 63 Puberty through Pregnancy 64 9. Chronic Annulment of Ablution 66 Excused Status 67 Losing the Excused Status 67 Short of the Excused Status 68 Active and Non-Active Excuse 69 Ablution Before the Prayer Time 70 Forestalling the Excuse 71 Wiping Footgear (Khuffayn) 71 The Prayer 71 Cleaning the Filth 72 Part 2: The Commentary in Detail 10. Comprehensive Precepts 77 General Precepts 77 Lochial Precepts 78 Menstrual Precepts 79 11. Commentary on the Comprehensive Precepts 81 General Precepts 81 Lochial Precepts 86 Menstrual Precepts 91 12. Lochial Case Studies 101 13. Menstrual Case Studies 120 14. End of Valid Bleeding Summary 171 Before the Habit 171 At or After the Habit 172 At the Maximum 173 15. Abnormal Vaginal Discharge 174 Types of Abnormal Vaginal Discharge 174 Causes of Abnormal Vaginal Discharge 176 Preventing Vaginitis and Vulvitis 177 Toxic Shock Syndrome 178 Chart: Common Types of Vaginitis 179 Appendix 1: The Arabic Text 181 Appendix 2: Sample Record Charts 196 Yearly Menstrual-Lochial Calender 197 Works Cited 205 Imam Birgivi 206
Praise for Birgivi’s Manual Interpreted
“A handbook of what a Muslim woman needs to know about her monthly period and related questions. The detailed content of this major work should make it useful for anyone teaching women’s fiqh.” – Nuh Keller
“The most comprehensive treatise found on the subject in the Hanafi School. A must read for every genuine student. The method of explanation is uique, and the charts are unparalleled.” – Tahir Anwar, South Bay Islamic Association
‘This ground-breaking book in English is based on the Ottoman scholar Imam Birgivi’s Treatise Dhukhr al-Muta’ahhilin wa al-Nisa’ fi ta’rif al-Athar wa al-Dima’ along with Imam Ibn ‘Abidin’s commentary of it. According to Imam Ibn ‘Abidin, this treatise by Imam Birgivi is the principal reference for menstruation and lochia and their related rulings in the Hanafi school. Ustadha Hedaya has permission to teach Imam Birgivi’s treatise from Shaykh Muhammad Amin Siraj, a shaykh at the Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih mosque in Istanbul, who wrote that she demonstrated “full comprehension and meticulous understanding” of the text.
While directly affecting women, it is also important for men to study this topic as well